PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT
By simply following the guidelines of CCPS, i.e. requirements of documents and written procedures, Hazard identification study documents, Mechanical Integrity verification records, etc. gaps in safety can be identified.For eg: Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (Element 6) involves inspection and review of HAZOPs, HAZIDs, Hazardous area Classification studies, Quantitative risk Assessments, SIL Studies, PSSR, Fire Safety, Electrical Safety, Lightning Protection design, Electrostatic Hazard Assessment, process Safety Gap Assessments, etc.
A hazardous area can be defined as any location where there is risk of an explosion. But every hazardous area is different and each has specific requirements depending on the nature of the atmosphere and the elements that are present. Where there is potential for an explosive atmosphere, special precautions are needed to prevent fires and explosions.
HAZard and OPerability (HAZOP) is a well-known and well documented study. HAZOP is used as part of a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) or as a standalone analysis. HAZOP is a more detailed review technique than HAZID. The purpose of the HAZOP is to investigate how the system or plant deviate from the design intent and create risk for personnel and equipment and operability problems. HAZOP studies have been used with great success within chemical and the petroleum industry to obtain safer, more efficient and more reliable plants.
Tools such as Safety integrity level (SIL) and Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) are some of the tools to assess the probability of failure (based on failure rates of individual components) of a functional safety system in time of need. The calculated probability of failure of a safety system acts as a measurement of the level of risk reduction of that system/interlock.
PROCESS SAFETY GAP ASSESSMENT
QRA (QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT)
A Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a valuable tool for determining the risk of the use, handling, transport and storage of dangerous substances. QRAs are used to demonstrate the risk caused by the activity and to provide the competent authorities with relevant information to enable decisions on the acceptability of risk related to developments on site, or around the establishment.